Mishra B, Yuan Y, Yu H, Kang H, Gao J, Daniels R, Chen X. Synthetic Sialosides Terminated with 8-N-Substituted Sialic Acid as Selective Substrates for Sialidases from Bacteria and Influenza Viruses. Angew Chem Int Ed Engl. 2024 May 7:e202403133. doi: 10.1002/anie.202403133. PMID: 38713874.


Chen X. Enabling Chemoenzymatic Strategies and Enzymes for Synthesizing Sialyl Glycans and Sialyl Glycoconjugates. Acc Chem Res. 2024 Jan 16;57(2):234-246. doi: 10.1021/acs.accounts.3c00614. Epub 2023 Dec 21. PMID: 38127793; PMCID: PMC10795189.

Lewis AL, Toukach P, Bolton E, Chen X, Frank M, Lütteke T, Knirel Y, Shoenhofen I, Varki A, Vinogradov E, Woods RJ, Zachara N, Zhang J, Kamerling JP, Neelamegham S, and the SNFG discussion group. Cataloging natural sialic acids and other nonulosonic acids (NulOs), and their representation using the Symbol Nomenclature for Glycans (SNFG). Glycobiology: Glyco-Forum section. 2023, 33, 99-103. DOI: 10.1093/glycob/cwac072

Kooner AS, Yuan Y, Yu H, Kang H, Klenow L, Daniels R, *Chen X. Sialosides containing 7-N-acetyl sialic acid are selective substrates for neuraminidases from influenza A viruses. ACS Infect. Dis. Special Virtual Issue “Glycoscience in Infectious Diseases” with Steven Townsend as the Topic Editor. 2023, 9, 33-41. PMID: 36455156. PMCID: PMC9840695. DOI: 10.1021/acsinfecdis.2c00502

†Yu H, †Zhang L, Yang X, Bai Y, *Chen X. Process engineering and glycosyltransferase improvement for short route chemoenzymatic total synthesis of GM1 gangliosides. †These authors contributed equally. Chem. Eur. J. 2023, e202300005. PMID: 36596720. PMCID: PMC10159885. DOI: 10.1002/chem.202300005

*Chen X, *Varki A. User-friendly bioorthogonal reactions click to explore glycan functions in complex biological systems. J. Clin. Invest. 2023, 133(6):e169408. PMID: 36919701. PMCID: PMC10014101. DOI: 10.1172/JCI169408. Viewpoint.

†Zhang L, †Li Y, †Li R, Yang X, Zheng Z, Fu J, Yu H, *Chen X. Glycoprotein in vitro N-glycan processing using enzymes expressed in E. coli. †These authors contributed equally. Molecules 2023, 28, 2753. PMID: 36985724. PMCID: PMC10051842. DOI: 10.3390/molecules28062753.

Yu, H.; Zheng, Z.; Zhang, L.; Yang, X.; Varki, A.; Chen, X. Chemoenzymatic Synthesis of N-Acetyl Analogues of 9-O-Acetylated b-Series Gangliosides. Tetrahedron 2023, 142, 133522. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.TET.2023.133522.  ​​


Martinez OE, Mahoney BJ, Goring AK, Yi S-W, Tran DP, Cascio D, Phillips ML, Muthana MM, Chen X, Jung ME, Loo JA, *Clubb RT. Insight into the molecular basis of substrate recognition by the wall teichoic acid glycosyltransferase TagA. J. Biol. Chem. 2022, 298, 101464. PMID: 34864059. PMCID: PMC8784642. DOI: 10.1016/j.jbc.2021.101464.

Yang X, Yu H, Yang X, Kooner AS, Yuan Y, Luu B, *Chen X. One-pot multienzyme (OPME) chemoenzymatic synthesis of brain ganglioside glycans with human ST3Gal II expressed in E. coli. ChemCatChem. 2022, 14, e2021014982. PMID: 35784007. PMCID: PMC9249095. DOI: 10.1002/cctc.202101498. Invited contribution. “Carbohydrate Chemistry” special collection. Guest Editors: Sabine Flitsch, Suvarn Kulkarni, and Jeroen Codée.

Senage T, Paul A, Le Tourneau T, Fellah-Hebia I, Vadori M, Bashir S, Galiñanes M, Bottio T, Gerosa G, Evangelista A, Badano LP, Nassi A, Costa C, Cesare G, Manji RA, de Monchy CC, Piriou N, Capoulade R, Serfaty J-M, Guimbretière G, Dantan E, Ruiz-Majoral A, du Fou GC, Ben-Arye SL, Govani L, Yehuda S, Abramovitch SB, Amon R, Reuven EM, Atiya-Nasagi Y, Yu H, Iop L, Casós K, Kuguel SG, Blasco-Lucas A, Permanyer E, Sbraga F, Llatjós R, Moreno-Gonzalez G, Sánchez-Martínez M, Breimer ME, Holgresson J, Teneberg S, Pascual-Gilabert M, Nonell-Canals A, Takeuchi Y, Chen X, *Mañez R, *Roussel J-C, *Soulillou J-P, *Cozzi E, *Padler-Karavani V. The role of antibody responses against glycans in bioprosthetic heart valve calcification and deterioration. Nat. Med. 2022, 28, 283-294. PMID: 35177855. PMCID: PMC8863575. DOI: 10.1038/s41591-022-01682-w.

Lewis A, Chen X, Schnaar RL, Varki A. Sialic acid and other nonulosonic acids. In: Essentials of Glycobiology, Varki A, Cummings RD, Esko JD, Stanley P, Hart GW, Aebi M, Mohnen D, Kinoshita T, Packer NH, Prestegard JH, Schnaar RL, Seeberger PH, editors.  4th Ed. Cold Spring Harbor (NY): Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press: 2022. Chapter 15. PMID: 35536973.

Bai Y, Yang X, Yu H, *Chen X. Substrate and process engineering for biocatalytic synthesis and facile purification of human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs). ChemSusChem Special Issue: Biocatalysis as key to sustainable industrial chemistry. Guest Editors: Andres Alcantara, Pablo Dominguez de Maria, Jennifer Littlechild, Roland Wohlgemuth. 2022, 15, e202102539. PMID: 35100486. PMCID: PMC9272545. DOI: 10.1002/cssc.202102539.

Khan N, Sasmal A, Khedri Z, Secrest P, Verhagen A, Srivastava S, Varki N, Chen X, Yu H, Beddoe T, Paton AW, Paton JC, *Varki A. Sialoglycan-binding patterns of bacterial AB5 toxin B subunits correlate with host range and toxicity, indicating evolution independent of A subunits. J. Biol. Chem. 2022, 298, 101900. PMID: 35398357. PMCID: PMC9120245. DOI: 10.1016/j.jbc.2022.101900.

Bensing BA, Stubbs HE, Agarwal R, Yamakawa I, Luong K, Solakyildirim K, Yu H, Hadadianpour A, Castro MA, Fialkowski KP, Morrison KM, Wawrzak Z, Chen X, Lebrilla CB, Baudry J, Smith JC, Sullam PM, *Iverson TM. Origins of glycan selectivity in streptococcal Siglec-like adhesins suggest mechanisms of receptor adaptation. Nat. Commun. 2022, 13, 2753. PMID: 35585145. PMCID: PMC9117288. DOI: 10.1038/s41467-022-30509-y.

Cao X, Wang S, Gadi MR, Liu D, Wang PG, Wan X-F, Zhang J, Chen X, Pepi L, Azadi P, *Li L. Systematic synthesis of bisected N-glycans and unique recognitions by glycan-binding proteins. Chem. Sci. 2022, 13, 7644-7656. PMID: 35872821. PMCID: PMC9241959. DOI: 10.1039/d1sc05435j.

Saha S, Khan N, Comi T, Verhagen A, Sasmal A, Diaz S, Yu H, Chen X, Akey JM, Frank M, *Gagneux P, *Varki A. Evolution of human-specific alleles protecting cognitive function of grandmothers. Mol Biol Evol. 2022, 39(8):msac151, 1–17. PMID: 35809046. PMCID: PMC9356730.  DOI: 10.1093/molbev/msac151.

Srivastava S, Verhagen A, Sasmal A, Wasik BR, Diaz S, Yu H, Bensing BA, Khan N, Khedri Z, Secrest P, Sullam P, Varki N, Chen X, Parrish CR, *Varki A. Development and applications of sialoglycan-recognizing probes (SGRPs) with defined specificities: Exploring the dynamic mammalian sialoglycome. Glycobiology 2022, 32, 1116-1136. PMID: 35926090. PMCID: PMC9680117. DOI: 10.1093/glycob/cwac050

Oh L, Varki A, Chen X, *Wang L-P. SARS-CoV-2 and MERS-CoV spike protein binding studies support stable mimic of bound 9-O-acetylated sialic acids. Molecules. 2022, 27, 5322. PMID: 36014560. PMCID: PMC9415320. DOI: 10.3390/molecules27165322.

Oh L, Ji Y, Li W, Freedberg DI, Varki A, Chen X, *Wang L-P. O-Acetyl migration within the sialic acid side chain: a mechanistic study by the ab initio nanoreactor. Biochemistry 2022, 61, 2007-2013. PMID: 36054099. PMCID: PMC9588306. DOI: 10.1021/acs.biochem.2c00343.

Sasmal A, Khan N, Khedri Z, Kellman BP, Srivastava S, Verhagen A, Yu H, Bruntse AB, Diaz S, Varki N, Beddoe T, Paton AW, Paton JC, Chen X, Lewis NE, *Varki A. Simple and practical sialoglycan encoding system reveals vast diversity in nature and identifies a universal sialoglycan-recognizing probe derived from AB5 toxin B subunits. Glycobiology 2022, 32, 1101-1115. PMID: 36048714. PMCID: PMC9680115. DOI: 10.1093/glycob/cwac057.


†Yu H, †Gadi MR, Bai Y, Zhang L, Li L, Yin J, Wang PG, *Chen X. Chemoenzymatic total synthesis of GM3 gangliosides containing different sialic acid forms and various fatty acyl chains. J. Org. Chem. 2021, 86, 8672-8682. †These authors contributed equally. PMID: 34152144. PMCID: PMC9235817. DOI: 10.1021/acs.joc.1c00450.

Yang X, Yang X, Yu H, Na L, Ghosh T, McArthur JB, Chou T-F, Dickson P, *Chen X. A GH89 human α-N-acetylglucosaminidase (hNAGLU) homologue from gut microbe Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron capable of hydrolyzing heparosan oligosaccharides. AMB Express 2021, PMID: 34165649. PMCID: PMC8225759. DOI: 10.1186/s13568-021-01253-1.

Wang S, Chen C, Reddy Gadi M, Saikam V, Liu D, Zhu H, Bollag R. Liu K, Chen X, Wang F, *Wang PG, *Ling P, *Guan W, *Li L. Chemoenzymatic modular assembly of O-GalNAc glycans for functional glycomics. Nat. Commun. 2021, 12, 3573. PMID: 34117223. PMCID: PMC8196059. DOI: 10.1038/s41467-021-23428-x.

Siddiqui SS, Dhar C, Sundaramurthy V, Sasmal A, Yu H, Bandala-Sanchez E, Li M, Zhang X, Chen X, Harrison LC, Xu D, *Varki A. Sialoglycan recognition is a common connection linking acidosis, zinc. and HMGB1 in sepsis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 2021, 118, e2018090118. PMID: 33658363. PMCID: PMC7958265. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2018090118.

Saha S, Coady A, Sasmal A, Kawanishi K, Choudhury B, Yu H, Sorensen RU, Inostroza J, Schoenhofen IC, Chen X, Münster-Kühnel A, Sato C, Kitajima K, Ram S, Nizet V, *Varki A. Exploring the impact of ketodeoxynonulosonic acid in host-pathogen interactions using uptake and surface display by non-typeable Haemophilus influenzae. mBio. 2021, 12:e03226-20. PMID: 33468699. PMCID: PMC7845648. DOI: 10.1128/mBio.03226-20.

Noy-Porat T, Mechaly A, Levy Y, Makdasi E, Alcalay R, Gur D, Aftalion M, Falach R, Leviatan Ben-Arye S, Lazar S, Zauberman A, Epstein E, Chitlaru T, Weiss S, Achdout H, Edgeworth JD, Kikkeri R, Yu H, Chen X, Yitzhaki S, Shapira SC, Padler-Karavani V, Mazor O, Rosenfeld R. Therapeutic antibodies, targeting the SARS-CoV-2 spike N-terminal domain, protect lethally infected K18-hACE2 mice. iScience 2021, 24, 102479. PMID: 33937725. PMCID: PMC8074524. DOI: 10.1016/j.isci.2021.102479

Na L, Li R, *Chen X. Recent progress in synthesis of carbohydrates with sugar nucleotide-dependent glycosyltransferases. Invited review. Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. Biocatalysis and Biotransformation. 2021, 61, 81-95. PMID: 33310623. PMCID: PMC8106622. DOI: 10.1016/j.cbpa.2020.10.007

Martin PT, Kawanishi K, Ashbrook A, Golden B, Samraj AN, Crowe K, Zygmunt D, Okerblom J, Yu H, Maki A, Diaz SL, Chen X, Janssen PML, Varki A. Serum antibodies to N-glycolyl-neuraminic acid are elevated in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy and exacerbate disease pathology in Cmah-/-mdx mice. Am. J. Pathol. 2021, 191, 1474-1486. PMID: 34294193. PMCID: PMC8351128. DOI: 10.1016/j.ajpath.2021.04.015

Kawanishi K, Saha S, Diaz S, Vaill M, Sasmal A, Siddiqui SS, Choudhury B, Sharma K, Chen X, Schoenhofen IC, Sato C, Kitajima K, Freeze HH, Munster-Kuhnel A, *Varki A. Evolutionary conservation of human ketodeoxynonulosonic acid production is independent of sialoglycan biosynthesis. J. Clin. Invest. 2021, 13, e137681. PMID: 33373330. PMCID: PMC7919724. DOI: 10.1172/JCI137681.

Zhang A, Sun L, Bai Y, Yu H, McArthur JB, Chen X, *Atsumi S. Microbial production of human milk oligosaccharide lactodifucotetraose. Metab. Eng. 2021, 66, 12-20. PMID: 33812022. DOI: 10.1016/j.ymben.2021.03.014.

Dhar C, Sasmal A, Diaz S, Verhagen A, Yu H, Li W, Chen X, *Varki A. Are sialic acids involved in COVID-19 pathogenesis? Glycobiology Letter to GlycoForum 2021, 31, 1068-1071. PMID: 34192318. PMCID: PMC8344891. DOI: 10.1093/glycob/cwab063

Borenstein-Katz A, Warszawski S, Amon R, Eilon M, Cohen-Dvashi H, Ben-Arye SL, Tasnima N, Yu H, Chen X, Padler-Karavani V, Fleishman SJ, *Diskin R. Biomolecular recognition of the glycan neoantigen CA19-9 by distinct antibodies. J. Mol. Biol. 2021, 433, 167099. PMID: 34119488. PMCID: PMC7611348. DOI: 10.1016/j.jmb.2021.167099.

Bai Y, Yu H, *Chen X. Chemoenzymatic synthesis and facile purification of gangliosides. Curr. Protoc. Glycoscience special issue. 2021, 1, e91. PMID: 33760402. PMCID: PMC8457310. DOI: 10.1002/cpz1.91.

Ji Y, Sasmal A, Li W, Oh L, Srivastava S, Hargett AA, Wasik BR, Yu H, Diaz S, Choudhury B, Parrish CR, Freedberg DI, Wang L-P, *Varki A, *Chen X. Reversible O-acetyl migration within the sialic acid side chain and its influence on protein recognition. ACS Chem. Biol. 2021, 16, 1951-1960. PMID: 33769035. PMCID: PMC8464613. DOI: 10.1021/acschembio.0c00998.

Zhang L, Yu H, Bai Y, Mishra B, Yang X, Wang J, Yu EB, Li R, *Chen X. A neoglycoprotein-immobilized fluorescent magnetic bead suspension multiplex array for galectin-binding studies. Molecules 2021, 26, 6194. PMID: 34684775. PMCID: PMC8541226. DOI: 10.3390/molecules26206194 Invited contribution. “Protein-Carbohydrate Conjugates: Synthesis and Application” Special Issue. Guest editors: Katherine Wall and Steve Sucheck.

Kooner AS, Diaz S, Yu H, Santra A, Varki A, *Chen X. Chemoenzymatic synthesis of sialosides containing 7-N– or 7,9-di-N-acetyl sialic acid as stable O-acetyl analogues for probing sialic acid-binding proteins. J. Org. Chem. 2021, 86, 14381-14397. PMID: 34636559. PMCID: PMC9242673. DOI: 10.1021/acs.joc.1c01091

Fu X, Gadi MR, Wang S, Han J, Liu D, Chen X, *Yin J, *Li L. General tolerance of galactosyltransferases toward UDP-galactosamine expands their synthetic capability. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2021, 60, 26555-26560. PMID: 34661966. PMCID: PMC8720041. DOI: 10.1002/anie.202112574.

Zhong R, Gao L, Chen Z, Yuan S, Chen X, *Zhao C. Chemoenzymatic synthesis of fucosylated oligosaccharides using Thermosynechococcus a1–2-fucosyltransferase and their application in the regulation of intestinal microbiota. Food Chemistry: X. 2021, 12, 100152. PMID: 34816119. PMCID: PMC8593560. DOI: 10.1016/j.fochx.2021.100152.


†Li Y, †Li R, Yu H, Sheng X, Wang J, Fisher AJ, *Chen X. Enterococcus faecalis a1–2-mannosidase (EfMan-I): an efficient catalyst for glycorprotein N-glycan modification. FEBS Lett. 2020, 594, 439-451. †These authors contributed equally. PMID: 31552675. PMCID: PMC7012691 DOI: 10.1002/1873-3468.13618

Zhang J, Yu H, Harris B, Zheng Y, Na L, Faller R, Chen X, Haudenschild DR, *Liu G. New means to control molecular assembly. J. Phys. Chem. C. Nanomater Interfaces. 2020, 124, 6405-6412. PMID: 33569091. PMCID: PMC7869855. DOI: 10.1021/acs.jpcc.9b11377

Weinborn V, *Li Y, Shah IM, Yu H, Dallas DC, German JB, Mills DA, Chen X, Barile D. Production of functional mimics of human milk oligosaccharides by enzymatic glycosylation of bovine milk oligosaccharides. Int. Diary J. 2020, 102, 104583. PMID: 32089591. PMCID: PMC7034812. DOI: 10.1016/j.idairyj.2019.104583

McArthur JB, Santra A, Li W, Kooner AS, Liu Z, Yu H, *Chen X. L. pneumophila CMP-5,7-di-N-acetyllegionaminic acid synthetase (LpCLS)-involved chemoenzymatic synthesis of sialosides and analogues. Themed issue on Glycosylation: New methodologies for oligosaccharide and glycoconjugate synthesis and their applications. Guest edited by Professors M. Carmen Galan, Antony Fairbanks, and Sabine L. Flitsch. Org. Biomol. Chem. 2020, 18, 738-744. PMID: 31912849. PMCID: PMC7098451. DOI: 10.1039/C9OB02476J

†Nguyen T, †Lee S, Yang Y-A, Sim JH, Kei TG, Barnard KN, Yu H, Millano SK, Chen X, Parrish CR, *Song J. The role of 9-O-acetylated glycan receptor moieties in the typhoid toxin binding and intoxication. PLOS Pathog. 2020, 16: e1008336. PMID: 32084237. PMCID: PMC7055914. DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1008336 †These authors contributed equally.

Barnard KN, Alford-Lawrence BK, Buchholz DW, Wasik BR, LaClair JR, Yu H, Honce RR, Ruhl S, Pajic P, Daugherity E, Chen X, Schultz-Cherry SL, Aguilar-Carreno H, Varki A, *Parrish CR. Modified sialic acids in mucus and erythrocytes on influenza A virus HA and NA functions. J. Virol. 2020, 94, e01567-19. PMID: 32051275. PMCID: PMC7163148. DOI: 10.1128/JVI.01567-19

Li R, Yu H, Muthana SM, Freedberg DI, *Chen X. Size-controlled chemoenzymatic synthesis of homogeneous oligosaccharides of Neisseria meningitidis W capsular polysaccharide. ACS Catal. 2020, 10, 2791-2798. PMID: 33414981. PMCID: PMC7785057. DOI: 10.1021/acscatal.9b05597

Matthews MM, McArthur JB, Li Y, Yu H, *Chen X, *Fisher AJ. Catalytic cycle of Neisseria meningitidis CMP-sialic acid synthetase illustrated by high-resolution protein crystallography. Biochemistry 2020, 59, 3157-3168. PMID: 31583886. PMCID: PMC7814854. DOI: 10.1021/acs.biochem.9b00517

Liu R, Sreenivasan C, Yu H, Sheng Z, Newkirk SJ, An W, Smith DF, Chen X, Wang D, *Li F. Influenza D virus diverges from its related influenza C virus in the recognition of 9-O-acetylated N-acetyl- or N-glycolyl-neuraminic acid-containing glycan receptors. Virology 2020, 545, 16-23. PMID: 32174455. PMCID: PMC7174096. DOI: 10.1016/j.virol.2020.02.007

Li W, Battistel MD, Reeves H, Oh L, Yu H, *Chen X, *Wang L-P, *Freedberg DI. A combined NMR, MD and DFT conformational analysis of 9-O-acetyl sialic acid-containing GM3 ganglioside glycan and its 9-N-acetyl mimic. Glycobiology 2020, 30, 787-801. PMID: 32350512. PMCID: PMC8179627.  DOI: 10.1093/glycob/cwaa040

†Na L, †*Yu H, Ghosh T, McArthur JB, Asbell T, *Chen X. Engineer P. multocida heparosan synthase 2 (PmHS2) for size-controlled synthesis of longer heparosan oligosaccharides. ACS Catal. 2020, 10, 6113-6118. †These authors contributed equally. PMID: 33520345. PMCID: PMC7842274. DOI: 10.1021/acscatal.0c01231.

*Li L, Guan W, Zhang G, Wu Z, Yu H, Chen X, Wang PG. Microarray analyses of closely related glycoforms reveal different accessibilities of glycan determinants on N-glycan branches. Glycobiology 2020, 30, 334-345. PMID: 32026940. PMCID: PMC7175966. DOI: 10.1093/glycob/cwz100

Li R, Yu H, *Chen X. Recent progress in chemical synthesis of bacterial surface glycans. Invited review. Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 2020, 58, 121-136. Synthetic Biomolecules. PMID: 32920523. PMCID: PMC7880230. DOI: 10.1016/j.cbpa.2020.08.003.

Stubbs HE, Bensing BA, Yamakawa I, Sharma P, Yu H, Chen X, Sullam PM, *Iverson TM. Tandem sialoglycan-binding modules in a Streptococcus sanguinis serine-rich repeat adhesin create target dependent avidity effects. J. Biol. Chem. 2020, 295, 14737-14749. PMID: 32820052. PMCID: PMC7586212. DOI: 10.1074/jbc.RA120.014177.

Bashir S, Fezeu LK, Leviatan Ben-Arye S, Yehuda S, Reuven EM, de Edelenyi FS, Fellah-Hebia I, Le Tourneau T, Imbert-Marcille BM, Drouet EB, Touvier M, Roussel J-C, Yu H, Chen X, Hereberg S, Cozzi E, Soulillou J-P, Galan P, Padler-Karavani V. Association between Neu5Gc carbohydrate and serum antibodies against it provide the molecular link to cancer: French NutriNet-Santé study. BMC Med. 2020, 18, 262. PMID: 32962714. PMCID: PMC7510162. DOI: 10.1186/s12916-020-01721-8.

Hurlburt NK, Guan J, Ong H, Yu H, *Chen X, *Fisher AJ. Structural characterization of a nonhydrolyzing UDP-GlcNAc 2-epimerase from Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A.  Acta Crystallogr. F Struct. Biol. Commun. 2020, 76, 557-567. PMID: 33135674. PMCID: PMC7605110. DOI: 10.1107/S2053230X20013680

Li R, Kooner AS, Muthana SM, Yuan Y, Yu H, *Chen X. A chemoenzymatic synthon strategy for synthesizing N-acetyl analogues of O-acetylated N. meningitidis W capsular polysaccharide oligosaccharides. J. Org. Chem. Special Issue on “A New Era of Discovery in Carbohydrate Chemistry.” Xuechen Li, Todd L. Lowary, Nicola Pohl, Jianglong Zhu, and Pierre-Alexandre Driguez Guest Eds. Yan-Mei Li, Associate and Handling Editor. 2020, 85, 16157-16165. PMID: 33164526. PMCID: PMC7811823.  DOI: 10.1021/acs.joc.0c02134 https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acs.joc.0c02134

Amon R, Rosenfeld R, Perlmutter S, Grant OC, Yehuda S, Abramovitch SB, Leviatan Ben-Arye S, Katz A, Mazor O, Alcalay R, Marshanski T, Yu H, Chen X, Benhar I, Woods RJ, Diskin R, *Padler-Karavani V. Directed evolution of therapeutic antibodies targeting glycosylation in cancer. Cancers (Basel). 2020, 12, 2824. PMID: 33007970. PMCID: PMC7601599. DOI: 10.3390/cancers12102824.


Bashir S, Leviatan Ben Arye S, Reuven E, Yu H, Costa C, Galinanes M, Chen X, Padler-Karavani V. Presentation mode of glycans affect recognition of human serum anti-Neu5Gc IgG antibodies. Bioconjug. Chem. 2019, 30, 161-168. PMID: 30500162. PMCID: PMC6768799. DOI: 10.1021/acs.bioconjchem.8b00817

Yuen PK, Green SA, Ashby J, Lay KT, Santra A, Chen X, Horvath MP, David SS. Targeting base excision repair glycosylases with DNA containing transition state mimics prepared via Click Chemistry. ACS Chem. Biol. 2019, 14, 27-36. PMID: 30500207. PMCID: PMC6825804. DOI: 10.1021/acschembio.8b00771

Santra A, Li Y, Ghosh T, Li R, Yu H, *Chen X. Regioselective one-pot multienzyme (OPME) chemoenzymatic strategies for systematic synthesis of sialyl Core 2 glycans. ACS Catal. 2019, 9, 211-215. PMID: 31304048. PMCID: PMC6625783. DOI: 10.1021/acscatal.8b04231

Tasnima N, Yu H, Yan X, Li W, Xiao A, *Chen X. Facile chemoenzymatic synthesis of Lewis a (Lea) antigen in gram-scale and sialyl Lewis a (sLea) antigens containing diverse sialic acid forms. Carbohydr. Res. 2019, 472, 115-121. PMID: 30562693. PMCID: PMC6417886. DOI: 10.1016/j.carres.2018.12.004

Li S, Wang J, Zang L, Zhu H, Guo J, Zhang J, Wen L, Chen Y, Li Y, Chen X, *Wang PG, *Li J. Production of glycopeptide derivatives for exploring the substrate specificity of human OGA toward sugar moiety. Frontiers Chemistry, section Chemical Biology. 2019, 6, Article 646. PMID: 30693278. PMCID: PMC6340312. DOI: 10.3389/fchem.2018.00646

Rousse J, Salama A, Leviatan Ben-Arye S, Hruba P, Slatinska J, Evanno G, Duvaux O, Blanchard D, Yu H, Chen X, Bach J-M, Padler-Karavani V, Viklicky O, *Soulillou JP. Quantitative and qualitative changes in anti-Neu5Gc antibody response following rabbit anti-thymocyte IgG induction in kidney recipients. Eur. J. Clin. Inv. 2019, e13069. PMID: 30620396. DOI: 10.1111/eci.13069

Reuven EM, Leviatan Ben-Arye S, Yu H, Duchi R, Perota A, Conchon S, Bachar Abramovitch S, Soulillou J-P, Galli C, Chen X, *Padler-Karavani V. Biomimetic glyconanoparticle vaccine for cancer immunotherapy. ACS Nano 2019, 13, 2936-2947. PMID: 30840433. PMCID: PMC6756924. DOI: 10.1021/acsnano.8b07241

Santra A, *Yu H, *Chen X. Chapter 10. Synthesis of glycosphingolipids (GSLs). In Synthetic Glycomes. RSC Chemical Biology Book Series. Wang P. G., Guan W., Li L. Eds. 2019, pp. 226-253. DOI: 10.1039/9781788016575-00226 eISBN:978-1-78801-657-5. NIHMSID: 1559715 https://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/chapterhtml/2019/bk9781788011648-00226?isbn=978-1-78801-164-8&sercode=bk

Yu H, *Chen X. Chapter 11. Enzymatic and chemoenzymatic synthesis of human milk oligosaccharides (HMOS). In Synthetic Glycomes. RSC Chemical Biology Book Series. Wang P. G., Guan W., Li L. Eds. 2019, pp. 254-280. DOI: 10.1039/9781788016575-00254 eISBN:978-1-78801-657-5 https://pubs.rsc.org/en/content/chapterhtml/2019/bk9781788011648-00254?isbn=978-1-78801-164-8&sercode=bk

†McArthur JB, †Yu H, *Chen X. A bacterial b1–3-galactosyltransferase enables multigram-scale synthesis of human milk lacto-N-tetraose (LNT) and its fucosides. ACS Catal. 2019, 9, 10721-10726. †These authors contributed equally.PMID: 33408950. PMCID: PMC7785058. DOI: 10.1021/acscatal.9b03990.

Li W, Santra A, Yu H, Slack TJ, Muthana MM, Shi D, Liu Y, *Chen X. 9-Azido-9-deoxy-2,3-difluorosialic acid as a subnanomolar inhibitor against bacterial sialidases. J. Org. Chem. 2019, 84, 6697-6708. PMID: 31083938. PMCID: PMC6660241. DOI: 10.1021/acs.joc.9b00385

Li W, McArthur JB, *Chen X. Strategies for chemoenzymatic synthesis of carbohydrates. Carbohydr. Res. 2019, 472, 86-97. PMID: 30529493. DOI: 10.1016/j.carres.2018.11.014

Li W, Ghosh T, Bai Y, Santra A, Xiao A, *Chen X. A substrate tagging and two-step enzymatic reaction strategy for large-scale synthesis of 2,7-anhydro-sialic acid. Carbohydr. Res. 2019, 479, 41-47. PMID: 31132641. PMCID: PMC6660240. DOI: 10.1016/j.carres.2019.05.002

Leviatan Ben-Arye S, Schneider C, Yu H, Bashir S, Chen X, von Gunten S, Padler-Karavani V. Differential recognition of diet-derived Neu5Gc-neoantigens on glycan microarrays by carbohydrate-specific pooled human IgG and IgA antibodies. Bioconjug. Chem. 2019, 30, 1565-1574. PMID: 30994337. PMCID: PMC6756923. DOI: 10.1021/acs.bioconjchem.9b00273

Le Berre L, Danger R, Mai H, Amon R, Bruneau S, Senage T, Perreault H, Teraiya M, Nguyen E, Le Tourneau T, Yu H, Chen X, Galli C, Roussel J-C, Manez R. Costa C, Brouard S, Galinanes M, Harris K, Gitelman S, Cozzi E, Charreau B, Padler-Karavan V, *Soulillou J-P. Elicited and pre-existing anti-Neu5Gc antibodies differentially affect human endothelial cell transcriptome. Xenoplantation 2019, e12535. PMID: 31293002. DOI: 10.1111/xen.12535

Kooner AS, Yu H, *Chen X. Synthesis of N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) and its glycosides. Frontiers in Immunology (7298) Special Issue on Human Antibodies Against Non-Human Neu5Gc-Carrying Glycans in Normal and Pathologic States. 2019, 10, 1-24. 10:2004. PMID: 31555264. PMCID: PMC6724515 DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2019.02004. eCollection 2019. https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fimmu.2019.02004/full

†Gao T, †Yan J, Liu C-C, Palma AS, Guo Z, Xiao M, Chen X, Liang X, Chai W, *Cao H. Chemoenzymatic synthesis of O-mannose glycans containing sulfated or non-sulfated HNK-1 epitope. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2019, 141, 19351-19359. †These authors contributed equally. PMID: 31738061. DOI: 10.1021/jacs.9b08964

Bell A, Brunt J, Crost E, Vaux L, Nepravishta R, Owen CD, Latousakis D, Xiao A, Li W, Chen X, Walsh MA, Claesen J, Angulo J, Thomas GH, *Juge N. Elucidation of a sialic acid metabolism pathway in mucus-foraging Ruminococcus gnavus unravels mechanisms of bacterial adaptation to the gut. Nat. Microbiol. 2019, 4, 2393-2404. PMID: 31636419. PMCID: PMC6881182. DOI: 10.1038/s41564-019-0590-7

†Bai J, †Wu Z, †Sugiarto G, Gadi MR, Yu H, Li Y, Xiao C, Ngo A, Zhao B, *Chen X, *Guan W. Biochemical characterization of Helicobacter pylori a1–3-fucosyltransferase and its application in the synthesis of fucosylated human milk oligosaccharides. †These authors contributed equally. Carbohydr. Res. 2019, 480, 1-6. PMID: 31132553. PMCID: PMC6613818. DOI: 10.1016/j.carres.2019.05.007


Xiao A, Li Y, Li X, Santra A, Yu H, Li W, *Chen X. Sialidase-catalyzed one-pot multienzyme (OPME) synthesis of sialidase transition-state analog inhibitors. ACS Catal. 2018, 8, 43-47. PMID: 29713561. PMCID: PMC5920526. DOI: 10.1021/acscatal.7b03257

Ming SA, Cottman-Thomas E, Black NC, Chen Y, Veeramachineni V, Peterson DC, Chen X, Tedaldi LM, Wagner GK, Cai C, Linhardt RJ, Vann WF. Interaction of Neisseria meningitidis group X N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphotransferase with its donor substrate. Glycobiology 2018, 28, 100-107. PMID: 29228283. DOI: 10.1093/glycob/cwx100

Santra A, Xiao A, Yu H, Li W, Li Y, Ngo L, McArthur JB, *Chen X. A diazido mannose analogue as a chemoenzymatic synthon for synthesizing di-N-acetyllegionaminic acid-containing glycosides. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2018, 57, 2929-2933. PMID: 29349857. PMCID: PMC5991975. DOI: 10.1002/anie.201712022

Mai HL, Treilhaud M, Ben-Arye SL, Yu H, Perreault H, Komatsu E, Trebern-Launay K, Laurent J, Malard-Castagnet S, Cesbron A, Nguyen TVH, Brouard S, Rostaing L, Houssel-Debry P, Legendre C, Girerd S, Kessler M, Morelon E, Sicard A, Garrigue V, Karam G, Chen X, Giral M, Padler-Karavani V, *Soulillou JP. Poor patient and graft outcome following induction treatment by anti-thymocyte globulins in recipients of a kidney graft after non-renal organ transplantation. Transplantation Direct 2018, 4, e357. PMID: 29707628. PMCID: PMC 5908458. DOI: 10.1097/TXD.0000000000000772

McArthur JB, Yu H, Tasnima N, Lee CM, Fisher AJ, *Chen X. a2–6-Neosialidase: A sialyltransferase mutant as a sialyl linkage-specific sialidase. ACS Chem. Biol. 2018, 13, 1228-1234. PMID: 29543427. PMCID: PMC5978697. DOI: 10.1021/acschembio.8b00002

Yakovenko O, Nunez J, Bensing B, Yu H, Mount J, Zeng J, Hawkins J, Chen X, Sullam PM, Thomas W. SRR adhesins mediate shear-enhanced streptococcal binding to platelets. Infect. Immun. 2018, 86, pii: e00160-18. PMID: 29581195. PMCID: PMC5964516. DOI: 10.1128/IAI.00160-18

Yu H, Santra A, Li Y, McArthur JB, Ghosh T, Yang X, Wang PG, *Chen X. Streamlined chemoenzymatic total synthesis of prioritized ganglioside cancer antigens. Org. Biomol. Chem. 2018, 16, 4076-4080. PMID: 29789847. PMCID: PMC5991974. DOI: 10.1039/c8ob01087k

Alisson-Silva F, Liu JZ, Diaz SL, Deng L, Gareau MG, Marchelletta R, Chen X, Nizet V, Varki N, Barrett KE, *Varki A. Human evolutionary loss of epithelial Neu5Gc expression and species-specific susceptibility to cholera. PLoS Pathogens 2018, 14, e1007133. PMID: 29912959. PMCID: PMC6023241. DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1007133

Samraj AN, Bertrand KA, Luben R, Khedri Z, Yu H, Nguyen D, Gregg CJ, Diaz SL, Sawyer S, Chen X, Eliassen H, Padler-Karavani V, Wu K, Khaw KT, Willett W, *Varki A. Polyclonal human antibodies against glycans bearing red meat-derived non-human sialic acid N-glycolylneuraminic acid are stable, reproducible, complex and vary between individuals: Total antibody levels are associated with colorectal cancer risk. PLoS One. 2018, 13, e0197464. PMID: 29912879. PMCID: PMC6005533. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0197464

Amon R, Grant OC, Ben-Arye SL, Makeneni S, Nivedha AK, Marshanski T, Norn C, Yu H, Glushka JN, Fleishman SJ, Chen X, Woods RJ, *Padler-Karavani V. A combined computational-experimental approach to define the structural origin of antibody recognition of sialyl-Tn, a tumor-associated carbohydrate antigen. Sci. Rep. 2018, 8, 10786. PMID: 30018351. PMCID: PMC6050261. DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-29209-9

Xiao A, Slack TJ, Li Y, Shi D, Yu H, Li W, Liu Y, *Chen X. Streptococcus pneumoniae sialidase SpNanB-catalyzed one-pot multienzyme (OPME) synthesis of 2,7-anhydro-sialic acids as selective sialidase inhibitors. J. Org. Chem. 2018, 83, 10798-10804. PMID: 30105908. PMCID: PMC6327951. DOI: 10.1021/acs.joc.8b01519

‡Slack TJ, ‡Li W, Shi D, McArthur JB, Zhao G, Li Y, Xiao A, Khedri Z, Yu H, Liu Y, *Chen X. Triazole-linked transition state analogs as selective inhibitors against V. cholerae sialidase. Bioorg. Med. Chem. 2018, 26, 5751-5757. PMID: 30389408. PMCID: PMC6326775. DOI: 10.1016/j.bmc.2018.10.028 ‡These authors contributed equally.


Khedri Z,† Xiao A,† Yu H,† Landig CS, Li W, Diaz S, Wasik BR, Parrish CR, Wang L-P, *Varki A, *Chen X. A chemical biology solution to problems with studying biologically important but unstable 9-O-acetyl sialic acid. †These authors contributed equally. ACS Chem. Biol. 2017, 12, 214-224. PMID: 27936566. PMCID: PMC5704959. DOI: 10.1021/acschembio.6b00928

Siddiqui S, Schwarz F, Springer S, Khedri Z, Yu H, Deng L, Verhagen A, Naito-Matsui Y, Jiang W, Kim D, Zhou J, Ding B, Chen X, Varki N, *Varki A. Studies on the detection, expression, glycosylation, dimerization and ligand binding properties of mouse Siglec-E. J. Biol. Chem. 2017, 292, 1029-1037. PMID: 27920204. PMCID: PMC5247637. DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M116.738351

McArthur JB, Yu H, Zeng J, *Chen X. Converting Pasteurella multocida a2–3-sialyltransferase 1 (PmST1) to a regioselective a2–6-sialyltransferase by saturation mutagenesis and regioselective screening. Org. Biomol. Chem. 2017, 15, 1700-1709. PMID: 28134951. PMCID: PMC5333693. DOI: 10.1039/c6ob02702d. Web themed issue on Biocatalysis: Natural and biologically inspired synthetic enzymes in response to the invitation from Prof. Scott Silverman and Prof. Douglas Mitchell

Fu X, Shang W, Xue M, Wang S, Liu Y, Qu J, Chen X, *Wang PG, *Fang J. A general strategy for synthesis of homogeneous hyaluronan conjugates and their biological applications. Chem. Commun. 2017, 53, 3555-3558. PMID: 28286894. DOI: 10.1039/c6cc09431g

Tsering D, Chen C, Ye J, Han Z, Jing BQ, Liu XW, Chen X, Wang F, Ling P, *Cao H. Enzymatic synthesis of human blood group P1 pentasaccharide antigen. Carbohydr. Res. 2017, 438, 39-43. PMID: 27960098. DOI: 10.1016/j.carres.2016.11.019

Leviatan Ben-Arye S, Yu H, Chen X, Padler-Karavani V. Profiling anti-Neu5Gc IgG in human sera with a sialoglycan microarray assay. J. Vis. Exp. 2017, 125, e56094. PMID: 28745644. PMCID: PMC5612302. DOI: 10.3791/56094 http://www.jove.com/video/56094

Santra A, Li Y, Yu H, Slack TJ, Wang PG, *Chen X. Highly efficient chemoenzymatic synthesis and facile purification of a-Gal pentasaccharyl ceramide Galα3nLc4βCer. Chem. Commun. 2017, 53, 8280-8283. PMID: 28695219. PMCID: PMC5597046. DOI: 10.1039/C7CC04090C

de los Milagros Camara M, Canepa GE, Lantos AB, Balouz V, Yu H, Chen X, Campetella O, Mucci J, Buscaglia CA. The trypomastigote small surface antigen (TSSA) regulates Trypanosoma cruzi infectivity and differentiation. PLoS Negl. Trop. Dis. 2017, 11, e0005856. PMID: 28800609. PMCID: PMC5568413. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0005856

Wasik BR, Barnard KN, Ossiboff RJ, Khedri Z, Feng K, Yu H, Chen X, Perez DR, Varki A, *Parrish CR. The distribution of O-acetylated sialic acids among target host tissues for influenza virus. mSphere 2017, 2, pii:e00379-16. PMID: 28904995. PMCID: PMC5588038. DOI: 10.1128/mSphere.00379-16

Yu H, Li L, Wu Z, Li L, Zeng J, Zhao C, Wu Y, Tasnima N, Wang J, Liu H, Gadi MR, Guan W, *Wang PG, *Chen X. Helicobacter pylori a1–3/4-fucosyltransferase (Hp3/4FT)-catalyzed one-pot multienzyme (OPME) synthesis of Lewis antigens and human milk fucosides. Chem. Commun. 2017, 53, 11012-11015. ‡These authors contributed equally. PMID: 28936496. PMCID: PMC5662472. DOI: 10.1039/c7cc05403c

Monestier M, Latousakis D, Bell A, Tribolo S, Tailford LE, Colquhoun I, Le Gall G, Yu H, Chen X, Rejzek M, Dedola S, Field R, *Juge N. Membrane enclosed multienzyme (MEME) synthesis of 2,7-anhydro-sialic acid derivatives. Carbohydr. Res. 2017, 451, 110-117. PMID: 28851488. PMCID: PMC5667892. DOI: 10.1016/j.carres.2017.08.008

Li W, Xiao A, Li Y, Yu H, *Chen X. Chemoenzymatic synthesis of Neu5Ac9NAc-containing a2–3- and a2–6-linked sialosides and their use for sialidase substrate specificity studies. Carbohydr. Res. 2017, 451, 51-58. PMID: 28961426. PMCID: PMC5662470. DOI: 10.1016/j.carres.2017.09.003

Hayakawa T, Khedri Z, Schwarz F, Landig C, Liang S-Y, Yu H, Chen X, Fujito N, Satta Y, Varki A, *Angata T. Co-evolution of Siglec-11 and Siglec-16 via gene conversion in the primates. BMC Evolutionary Biology 2017, 17, 228. PMID: 29169316. PMCID: PMC5701461. DOI: 10.1186/s12862-017-1075-z

Gao X, Deng L, Stacks G, Yu H, Chen X, Naito-Matsui Y, Varki A, Galan JE. Evolution of host adaptation in the Salmonella typhoid toxin. Nat. Microbiol. 2017, 2, 1592-1599. PMID: 28993610. PMCID: PMC5705260. DOI: 10.1038/s41564-017-0033-2

*Yu H, Yan X, Autran CA, Li Y, Etzold S, Latasiewicz J, Robertson BM, Li J, Bode L, *Chen X. Enzymatic and chemoenzymatic syntheses of disialyl glycans and their necrotizing enterocolitis preventing effects. J. Org. Chem. 2017, 82, 13152-13160. PMID: 29124935. PMCID: PMC5764747. DOI: 10.1021/acs.joc.7b02167

Owen CD, Tailford LE, Monaco S, Suligoj T, Vaux L, Lallement R, Khedri Z, Yu H, Lecointe K, Walshaw J, Tribolo S, Horrex M, Bell A, Chen X, Taylor GL, Varki A, Angulo J, *Juge N. Unravelling the specificity and mechanism of sialic acid recognition by the gut symbiont Ruminococcus gnavus. Nat. Commun. 2017, 8, 2196. PMID: 29259165. PMCID: PMC5736709. DOI: 10.1038/s41467-017-02109-8

Amon R, Ben-Arye SL, Engler L, Yu H, Lim N, Le Berre L, Harris KM, Ehlers M, Gitelman SE, Chen X, Soulillou J-P, Padler-Karavani V. Glycan microarray reveal induced IgGs repertoire shift against a dietary carbohydrate in response to rabbit anti-human thymocyte therapy. Oncotarget 2017, 8, 112236-112244. PMID: 29348821. PMCID: PMC5762506. DOI: 10.18632/oncotarget.23096


*Chen X. Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOS): Structure, function, and enzyme-catalyzed synthesis. In Advances in Carbohydrate Chemistry and Biochemistry David C. Baker, Derek Horton, Eds. Academic Press, ACCB, UK, 2015, 72, 113-190. PMID: 26613816. PMCID: PMC DOI: 10.1016/bs.accb.2015.08.002

Zhang L, Muthana MM, Yu H, McArthur JB, Qu J, *Chen X. Characterizing non-hydrolyzing Neisseria meningitidis serogroup A UDP-N-acetylglucosamine (UDP-GlcNAc) 2-epimerase using UDP-N-acetylmannosamine (UDP-ManNAc) and derivatives. Carbohydr. Res. 2016, 419, 18-28. PMID: 26598987. PMCID: PMC4698195. DOI: 10.1016/j.carres.2015.10.016

Song H, Qi J, Khedri Z, Diaz S, Yu H, Chen X, Varki A, Shi Y, *Gao G. F. An open receptor-binding cavity of hemagglutinin-esterase-fusion glycoprotein from newly-identified influenza D virus: Basis for its broad cell tropism. PLoS Pathog. 2016, 12: e1005411. PMID: 26816272. PMCID: PMC4729479. DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1005411

McArthur JB, *Chen X. Glycosyltransferase engineering for carbohydrate synthesis. Biochem. Soc. Trans. 2016, 44, 129-142. PMID: 26862198. PMCID: PMC DOI: 10.1042/BST20150200

*Tiwari VK, Mishra BB, Mishra KB, Mishra N, Singh AS, *Chen X. Cu-catalyzed click reaction in carbohydrate chemistry. Chem. Rev. 2016, 116, 3086-3240. PMID: 26796328. DOI: 10.1021/acs.chemrev.5b00408

Zhao C, Wu Y, Yu H, Shah IM, Li Y, Zeng J, Liu B, Mills DA, *Chen X. The one-pot multienzyme (OPME) synthesis of human blood group H antigens and a human milk oligosaccharide (HMOS) with highly active Thermosynechococcus elongatus a1–2-fucosyltransferase. Chem. Commun. 2016, 52, 3899–3902. PMID: 26864394. PMCID: PMC4775349. DOI: 10.1039/C5CC10646J

Yu H, *Chen X. One-pot multienzyme (OPME) systems for chemoenzymatic synthesis of carbohydrates. Org. Biomol. Chem. 2016, 14, 2809–2818. PMID: 26881499. PMCID: PMC4795158. DOI: 10.1039/C6OB00058D

Bensing B, Loukachevitch LV, McCulloch KM, Yu H, Vann KR, Wawrzak Z, Anderson S, Chen X, Sullam PM, *Iverson TM. Structural basis for sialoglycan binding by the Streptococcus sanguinis SrpA adhesin. J. Biol. Chem. 2016, 291, 7230–7240. PMID: 26833566. PMCID: PMC4817157. DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M115.701425

Santra A, Yu H, Tasnima N, Muthana MM, Li Y, Zeng J, Kenyon NJ, Louie AY, *Chen X. Systematic chemoenzymatic synthesis of O-sulfated sialyl Lewis x antigens. Chem. Sci. 2016, 7, 2827-2831. PMID: 28138383. PMCID: PMC5269574. DOI: 10.1039/C5SC04104J

Lantos AB, Carlevaro G, Araoz B, Diaz PR, de los Milagros Camara M, Buscaglia CA, Bossi M, Yu H, Chen X, Bertozzi C, Mucci J, *Campetella O. Sialic acid glycobiology unveils Trypanosoma cruzi trypomastigote membrane physiology. PLOS Pathog. 2016, 12(4):e1005559. PMID: 27058585. PMCID: PMC4825991. DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1005559

Li Y,† Xue M,† Sheng X, Yu H, Zeng J, Thon V, Chen Y, Muthana MM, Wang PG, *Chen X. Donor substrate promiscuity of bacterial beta1-3-N-acetylglucosaminyltransferases and acceptor substrate flexibility of beta1-4-galactosyltransferases. †These authors contributed equally. Bioorg. Med. Chem. 2016, 24, 1696–1705. PMID: 26968649. PMCID: PMC4808627. DOI: 10.1016/j.bmc.2016.02.043

Calderon AD, Liu Y, Li X, Wang X, Chen X, *Li L, *Wang PG. Substrate specificity of FUT8 and chemoenzymatic synthesis of core-fucosylated asymmetric N-glycans. Org. Bioorg. Chem. 2016, 14, 4027-4031. PMID: 27080952. PMCID: PMC4852481. DOI: 10.1039/c6ob00586a

Liu Y, Wen L, Li L, Gadi MR, Guan W, Huang K, Xiao Z, Wei M, Ma C, Zhang Q, Yu H, *Chen X, *Wang PG, *Fang J. A general chemoenzymatic strategy for the synthesis of glycosphingolipids. Eur. JOC. 2016, 2016, 4315-4320. PMID: 28824290. PMCID: PMC5560440. DOI: 10.1002/ejoc.201600950

Reuven EM, Ben-Arye SL, Marshanski T, Breimer ME, Yu H, Fellah I, Roussel J-C, Costa C, Galiñanes M, Mañez R, Le Tourneau T, Soulillou J-P, Cozzi E, Chen X, *Padler-Karavani V. Characterization of immunogenic Neu5Gc in bioprosthetic heart valves. Xenotransplantation. 2016, 23, 381-392. PMID: 27610947. PMCID: PMC5036590. DOI: 10.1111/xen.12260

Yu H,† Zeng J,† Li Y, Thon V, Shi B, *Chen X. Effective one-pot multienzyme (OPME) synthesis of monotreme milk oligosaccharides (MOSs) and other sialosides containing a 4-O-acetyl sialic acid. †These authors contributed equally. Org. Biomol. Chem. 2016, 14, 8586-8597. PMID: 27548611. PMCID: PMC5036589. DOI: 10.1039/c6ob01706a

Loukachevitch LV, Bensing BA, Yu H, Zeng J, Chen X, Sullam PM, *Iverson TM. Structures of the Streptococcus sanguinis SrpA binding region with human sialoglycans suggest features of the physiological ligand. Biochemistry 2016, 55, 5927-5937. PMID: 27685666. PMCID: PMC5388602. DOI: 10.1021/acs.biochem.6b00704

Ye J, Liu X, Peng P, Yi W, Chen X, Wang F, *Cao H. Diversity-oriented enzymatic modular assembly of ABO histo-blood group antigens. ACS Catal. 2016, 6, 8140-8144. DOI: 10.1021/acscatal.6b02755

Bensing BA, Khedri Z, Deng L, Yu H, Prakobphol A, Fisher SJ, Chen X, Iverson TM, Varki A, *Sullam PM. Novel aspects of sialoglycan recognition by the Siglec-like domains of streptococcal SRR glycoproteins. Glycobiology 2016, 26, 1222-1234. PMID: 27037304. PMCID: PMC6086536. DOI: 10.1093/glycob/cww042

*Yu H, Li Y, Zeng J, Nguyen D, Ly T, Kuang HY, Ngo A, Thon V, *Chen X. One-pot multienzyme (OPME) chemoenzymatic synthesis of glycosphingolipid glycans. J. Org. Chem. 2016, 81, 10809-10824. PMID: 27736072. PMCID: PMC5775905. DOI: 10.1021/acs.joc.6b01905

Wu Z, Liu Y, Ma C, Li L, Bai J, Byrd-Leotis L, Lasanajak Y, Guo Y, Wen L, Zhu H, Li Y, Steinhauer DA, Smith DF, Zhao B, *Chen X, *Guan W, *Wang PG. Identification of the binding roles of terminal and internal glycan epitopes using enzymatically synthesized N-glycans containing tandem epitopes. Org. Biomol. Chem. 2016, 14, 11106-11116. PMID: 27752690. PMCID: PMC5951163. DOI: 10.1039/c6ob01982j

Karsai A, Slack TJ, Malekan H, Khoury F, Lin W-F, Tran V, Cox D, Toney M, Chen X, *Liu G-Y. Local mechanical perturbation provides an effective means to regulate the growth and assembly of functional peptide fibrils. Small 2016, 12, 6407-6415. PMID: 27689936. DOI: 10.1002/smll.201601657

Tasnima N, Yu H, Li Y, Santra A, *Chen X. Chemoenzymatic synthesis of para-nitrophenol (pNP)-tagged a2–8-sialosides and high-throughput substrate specificity studies of a2–8-sialidases. Org. Biomol. Chem. 2016, 15, 160-167. PMID: 27924345. PMCID: PMC5173422. DOI: 10.1039/C6OB02240E



Han Z, Chen C, Meng C, Gao T, Peng P, Chen X, Wang F, *Cao H. Chemoenzymatic synthesis of tumor-associated antigen N3 minor octasaccharide. J. Carbohydr. Chem. 2016, 35, 412-422. DOI: 10.1080/07328303.2017.1315123

Li Y, Li X, *Chen X. Chapter 1 Glycoproteins: Chemical features and biological roles. In Carbohydrates Chemistry: State-of-the-art and challenges for drug development. Ed. Laura Cipolla. Invited book chapter. 2015 Imperial College Press. London. ISBN: 9781783267194. pp 3-33. July 23, 2015. https://play.google.com/store/books/details/Carbohydrate_Chemistry_State_Of_The_Art_And_Challe?id=rNy3CgAAQBAJ

Yao W, Yan J, Chen X, Wang F, Cao H. Chemoenzymatic synthesis of lacto-N-tetrasaccharide and sialyl lacto-N-tetrasaccharides. Carbohydr. Res. 2015, 401, 5-10. PMID: 25464075. DOI: 10.1016/j.carres.2014.10.017

Peralta MDR, Karsai A, Ngo A, Sierra C, Fong KT, Hayre NR, Mirzaee N, Ravikumar KM, Kluber AJ, Chen X, Liu G-Y, Toney MC, Singh RR, *Cox DL. Engineering amyloid fibrils from b-solenoid proteins for biomaterials applications. ACS Nano. 2015, 9, 449-463. PMID: 25562726. DOI: 10.1021/nn5056089

Muthana MM, Qu J, Xue M, Klyuchnik T, Siu A, Li Y, Zhang L, Yu H, Li L, Wang PG, *Chen X. Improved one-pot multienzyme (OPME) systems for synthesizing UDP-uronic acids and glucuronides. Chem. Commun. 2015, 51, 4591-4598. PMID: 25686901. PMCID: PMC4348237. DOI: 10.1039/c4cc10306h

Ngo A, Fong KT, Cox DL, *Chen X, *Fisher AJ. Structures of Bacteroides fragilis uridine 5′-diphosphate-N-acetylglucosamine (UDPGlcNAc) acyltransferase (BfLpxA). Acta Crystallogr. D Biol. Crystallogr. 2015, 71, 1068-1076. PMID: 25945572. PMCID: PMC4427197. DOI: 10.1107/S1399004715003326

Chen C, Zhang Y, Xue M, Liu X, Li Y, *Chen X, *Wang PG, *Wang F, *Cao H. Sequential one-pot multienzyme (OPEM) synthesis of lacto-N-neotetraose and its sialyl and fucosyl derivatives. Chem. Commun. 2015, 51, 7689-7692. PMID: 25848722. DOI: 10.1039/c5cc01330e

Wu B, Wei N, Thon V, Wei M, Yu Z, Xu Y, Chen X, Liu J, Wang PG, Li T. Facile chemoenzymatic synthesis of biotinylated heparosan hexasaccharide. Org. Biomol. Chem. 2015, 13, 5098-5101. PMID: 25858766. PMCID: PMC 4472006. DOI: 10.1039/c5ob00462d

Ding L, Zhao C, Qu J, Li Y, Sugiarto G, Yu H, *Wang J, *Chen X. A Photobacterium sp. a2–6-sialyltransferase mutant (Psp2,6ST) with an increased expression level and improved activities in sialylating Tn antigens. Carbohydr. Res. 2015, 408, 127-133. PMID: 25593075. DOI: 10.1016/j.carres.2014.12.007

Li L, Liu Y, Li T, Wang W, Yu Z, Ma C, Qu J, Zhao W, Chen X, Wang PG. Efficient chemoenzymatic synthesis of novel galacto-N-biose derivatives and their sialylated forms. Chem. Commun. 2015, 51, 10310-10313. PMID: 26023910. PMCID: PMC4498953. DOI: 10.1039/c5cc03746h

Langereis MA, Bakkers MJG, Deng L, Padler-Karavani V, Vervoort SJ, Hulswit RJG, van Vliet ALW, Gerwig GJ, de Poot SAH, Boot W, van Ederen AM, Heesters BA, van der Loos CM, van Kuppeveld FJM, Yu H, Huizinga EG, Chen X, Varki A, Kamerling JP, de Groot RJ. Complexity and diversity of the mammalian sialome revealed by nidovirus virolectins. Cell Rep. 2015, 11, 1966-1978. PMID: 26095364. PMCID: PMC5292239. DOI: 10.1016/j.celrep.2015.05.044

Feng KH, Gonzalez G, Deng L, Yu H, Tse LP, Huang L, Huang K, Wasik BR, Zhou B, Wentworth DE, Holmes EC, Chen X, Varki A, Murcia PR, *Parrish CR. Equine and canine influenza H3N8 viruses show minimal biological differences despite phylogenetic divergence. J. Virol. 2015, 89, 6860-6873. PMID: 25903329. PMCID: PMC4468500. DOI: 10.1128/JVI.00521-15

Fei Y, Sun Y-S, Li Y, Yu H, Lau K, Landry JP, Luo Z, Baumgarth N, Chen X, *Zhu X. Characterization of receptor binding profiles of influenza A viruses using an ellipsometry-based label-free glycan microarray assay platform. Biomolecules 2015, 5, 1480-1498. PMID: 26193329. PMCID: PMC4598760. DOI: 10.3390/biom5031480

Zhang Y, Meng C, Chen X, *Wang F, *Cao H. Chemoenzymatic synthesis of a-dystroglycan core M1 O-mannose glycans. Chem. Commun. 2015, 51, 11654-11657. PMID: 26100261. DOI: 10.1039/C5CC02913A

Li L, Liu Y, Ma C, Qu J, Calderon AD, Wu B, Wei N, Wang X, Guo Y, Xiao Z, Song J, Sugiarto G, Li Y, Yu H, Chen X, *Wang PG. Efficient chemoenzymatic synthesis of an N-glycan isomer library. Chem. Sci. 2015, 6, 5652-5661. PMID: 26417422. PMCID: PMC4583208. DOI: 10.1039/C5SC02025E


Halder S, Cotmore S, Heimburg-Molinaro J, Smith DF, Cummings RD, Chen X, Trollope AJ, North SJ, Haslam SM, Dell A, Tattersall P, McKenna R, Agbandje-McKenna M. Profiling of glycan receptors for minute virus of mice in permissive cell lines towards understanding the mechanism of cell recognition. PLoS One 2014, 9, e86909 (1-12). PMID: 24475195. PMCID: PMC3903596. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0086909

Li Y, Yu H, Thon V, Chen Y, Muthana MM, Qu J, Hie L, *Chen X. Donor substrate promiscuity of the N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase activities of Pasteurella multocida heparosan synthase 2 (PmHS2) and Escherichia coli K5 KfiA. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2014, 98, 1127-1134. PMID: 23661084. DOI: 10.1007/s00253-013-4947-1

Padler-Karavani V, Hurtado-Ziola N, Chang Y-C, Sonnenburg JL, Ronaghy A, Yu H, Verhagen A, Nizet V, Chen X, Varki N, Varki A, Angata T. Rapid evolution of binding specificities and expression patterns of inhibitory CD33-related Siglecs in primates. FASEB J. 2014, 28, 1280-1293. PMID: 24308974. PMCID: PMC3929681. DOI: 10.1096/fj.13-241497

Hwang J, Yu H, Malekan H, Li Y, Sugiarto G, Thon V, Qu J, Nguyen V, Wu D, *Chen X. Highly efficient one-pot multienzyme (OPME) synthesis of glycans with fluorous-tag assisted purification. Chem. Commun. 2014, 50, 3159-3162. PMID: 24473465. DOI: 10.1039/C4CC00070F

Meng X, Yao W, Cheng J, Zhang X, Jin L, Yu H, Chen X, *Wang F, *Cao H. Regioselective chemoenzymatic synthesis of ganglioside disialyl tetrasaccharide epitopes. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2014, 136, 5205-5208. PMID: 24649890. PMCID: PMC4210053. DOI: 10.1021/ja5000609

Khedri Z, Li Y, Muthana S, Muthana MM, Hsiao C-W, Yu H, *Chen X. Chemoenzymatic synthesis of sialosides containing C7-modified sialic acids and their application in sialidase substrate specificity studies. Carbohydr. Res. 2014, 389, 100-111. PMID: 24680514. PMCID: PMC4074090. DOI: 10.1016/j.carres.2014.02.021

Yu H, Lau K, Thon V, Autran CA, Jantscher-Krenn E, Xue M, Li Y, Sugiarto G, Qu J, Mu S, Ding L, Bode L, *Chen X. Synthetic disialyl hexasaccharides protect neonatal rats from necrotizing enterocolitis. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2014, 53, 6687-6691. PMID: 24848971. PMCID: PMC4147952. DOI: 10.1002/anie.201403588

Chen G-Y, Brown NK, Wu W, Khedri Z, Yu H, Chen X, Van de Vlekkert D, d’Azzo A, Zheng P, *Liu Y. Broad and direct interaction between TLR and Siglec families of pattern recognition receptors and its regulation by Neu1. eLife 2014, 3, e04066, page 1-18. PMID: 25187624. PMCID: PMC4168287. DOI: 10.7554/eLife.04066

Deng L, Song J, Gao X, Wang J, Yu H, Chen X, Varki N, Naito-Matsui Y, Galan JE, Varki A. Host adaptation of a bacterial toxin from the human pathogen Salmonella Typhi. Cell. 2014, 159, 1290-1299. PMID: 25480294. PMCID: PMC4258231. DOI: 10.1016/j.cell.2014.10.057

Deng L, Bensing BA, Thamadilok S, Yu H, Lau K, Chen X, Ruhl S, Sullam PM, *Varki A. Oral Streptococci utilize a Siglec-like domain of serine-rich repeat adhesins to preferentially target platelet sialoglycans in human blood. PLoS Pathog. 2014, 10 (12), e1004540. PMID: 25474103. PMCID: PMC4256463. DOI: 10.1371/journal.ppat.1004540

‡Huynh N, ‡Li Y, Yu H, Huang S, Lau K, *Chen X, *Fisher AJ. Crystal structure of sialyltransferase from Photobacterium damselae. FEBS Lett. ‡Co-first authors. 2014, 588, 4720-4729. PMID: 25451227, PMCID: PMC4268365. DOI: 10.1016/j.febslet.2014.11.003


Shao D, Atungulu GG, Pan Z, Yue T, Zhang A, Chen X. Separation methods and chemical nutritional characteristics of tomato pomace. Transactions of the ASABE (Am. Soc. Agricultural Biological Engineers) 2013, 56, 261-268. DOI: 10.13031/2013.42577

Yan J, Chen X, Wang F, *Cao H. Chemoenzymatic synthesis of mono- and di-fluorinated Thomsen-Friedenreich (T) antigens and their sialylated derivatives. Org. Biomol. Chem. 2013, 11, 842-848. PMID: 23241945. PMCID: PMC3616747. DOI: 10.1039/C2OB26989A

Padler-Karavani V, Tremoulet A, Yu H, Chen X, Burns JC, *Varki A. A simple method for assessment of human anti-Neu5Gc antibodies applied to Kawasaki Disease. PLoS One 2013, 8, e58443. PMID: 23520510. PMCID: PMC3592828. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0058443

Kikkeri R, Padler-Karavani V, Diaz S, Verhagen A, Yu H, Cao H, Langereis MA, De Groot RJ, Chen X, *Varki A. Quantum dot nanometal surface energy transfer biosensing of sialic acid compositions and linkages in biological samples. Ana. Chem. 2013, 85, 3864-3870. PMID: 23489180. PMCID: PMC5996995. DOI: 10.1021/ac400320n

Ma X, Liu P, Yan H, Sun H, Liu X, Zhou F, Li L, Chen Y, Muthana MM, Chen X, Wang PG, *Zhang L. Substrate specificity provides insights into the sugar donor recognition mechanism of O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT). PLoS One. 2013, 8, e63452. PMID: 23700425. PMCID: PMC3660302. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0063452

Malekan H, Fung G, Thon V, Khedri Z, Yu H, Qu J, Li Y, Ding L, Lam KS, *Chen X. One-pot multi-enzyme (OPME) chemoenzymatic synthesis of sialyl-Tn-MUC1 and sialyl-T-MUC1 glycopeptides containing natural or non-natural sialic acid. Bioorg. Med. Chem. 2013, 21, 4778-4785. PMID: 23535562. PMCID: PMC3722252. DOI: 10.1016/j.bmc.2013.02.040

Scobie L, Padler-Karavani V, Le Bas-Bernardet S, Crossan C, Blaha J, Matouskova M, Hector RD, Cozzi E, Vanhove B, Charreau B, Blancho G, Bourdais L, Tallachini M, Ribes JM, Yu H, Chen X, Kracikova J, Broz L, Hejnar J, Vesely P, Takeuchi Y, Varki A, Soulillou J-P. Long-term IgG response to porcine Neu5Gc-antigens without transmission of PERV in burn patients treated with porcine skin xenografts. J. Immunol. 2013, 191, 2907-2915. PMID: 23945141. PMCID: PMC3782708. DOI: 10.4049/jimmunol.1301195

On line update for: Chokhawala HA, Yu H, *Chen X. Chemical aspects (scope and limitations) A: Enzymatic approaches to O-glycoside introduction: Glycosyltransferases. In Comprehensive Glycoscience, from Chemistry to Systems Biology (J. P. Kamerling, Ed.) Subject Editors: Geert-Jan Boons, YC Lee, Akemi Suzuki, Naoyuki Taniguchi, and Alphons G. J. Voragen. Elsevier, Oxford, UK, 2007, 1, 415–451.

Deng L, Chen X, *Varki A. Exploration of sialic acid diversity and biology using sialoglycan microarrays. Biopolymers: 50th anniversary issue: glycoscience. Biopolymers 2013, 99, 650-665. PMID: 23765393. PMCID: PMC7161822. DOI: 10.1002/bip.22314

Li L, Liu Y, Wan Y, Li Y, Chen X, Zhao W, Wang PG. Efficient enzymatic synthesis of guanosine 5′-diphosphate-sugars and derivatives. Org. Lett. 2013, 15, 5528-5530. PMID: 24117142. PMCID: PMC3915774. DOI: 10.1021/ol402585c

Fei Y, Landry JP, Li Y, Yu H, Lau K, Huang S, Chokhawala HA, Chen X, Zhu X. An optics-based variable-temperature assay system for characterizing thermodynamics of biomolecular reactions on solid support. Rev. Sci. Instrum. 2013, 84, 114102, 1–9. PMID: 24289409. PMCID: PMC3838479. DOI: 10.1063/1.4826352

Chen Y, Li Y, Yu H, Sugiarto G, Thon V, Hwang J, Ding L, Hie L, *Chen X. Tailored design and synthesis of heparan sulfate oligosaccharide analogues using sequential one-pot multienzyme (OPME) systems. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2013, 52, 11852-11856. PMID: 24038939. PMCID: PMC3943747. DOI: 10.1002/anie.201305667

Huynh N, Aye A, Li Y, Yu H, Cao H, Tiwari VK, Shin D-W, Chen X, *Fisher AJ. Structural basis for substrate specificity and mechanism of N-acetyl-D-neuraminic acid lyase from Pasteurella multocida. Biochemistry 2013, 52, 8570-8579. PMID: 24152047. PMCID: PMC3880309. DOI: 10.1021/bi4011754


Li Y, Yu H, Cao H, Muthana S, *Chen X. Pasteurella multocida CMP-sialic acid synthetase and mutants of Neisseria meningitidis CMP-sialic acid synthetase with improved substrate promiscuity. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2012, 93, 2411-2423. PMID: 21968653. PMCID: PMC DOI: 10.1007/s00253-011-3579-6

*Cao H, *Chen X. Chapter 3. General consideration on sialic acid chemistry. In Methods in Molecular Biology series Carbohydrate Microarrays: Methods and Protocols. Edited by Yann Chevolot. 2012, 808, 31-56. PMID: 22057516. DOI: 10.1007/978-1-61779-373-8_3

Linman MJ, Yu H, Chen X, Cheng Q. Chapter 13. Surface plasmon resonance imaging analysis of protein binding to a sialoside-focused carbohydrate microarray. In Methods in Molecular Biology series Carbohydrate Microarrays: Methods and Protocols. Edited by Yann Chevolot. 2012, 808, 183-194. PMID: 22057526. DOI: 10.1007/978-1-61779-373-8_13

Thon V, Li Y, Yu H, Lau K, *Chen X. PmST3 from Pasteurella multocida encoded by Pm1174 gene is a monofunctional a2–3- sialyltransferase. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2012, 94, 977-985. PMID: 22075637. PMCID: PMC DOI: 10.1007/s00253-011-3676-6

‡Muthana MM, ‡Qu J, Li Y, Zhang L, Yu H, Ding L, Malekan H, *Chen X. Efficient one-pot multienzyme synthesis of UDP-sugars using a promiscuous UDP-sugar pyrophosphorylase from Bifidobacterium longum (BLUSP). Chem. Commun. 2012, 48, 2728-2730. PMID: 22306833 PMCID: PMC DOI: 10.1039/C2CC17577K ‡Co-first authors.

‡Khedri Z, ‡Muthana MM, ‡Li Y, Muthana SM, Yu H, Cao H, *Chen X. Probe sialidase substrate specificity using chemoenzymatically synthesized sialosides containing C9-modified sialic acids. Chem. Commun. 2012, 48, 3357-3359. PMID: 22361713. PMCID: PMC DOI: 10.1039/C2CC17393J ‡Co-first authors.

Li Y, *Chen X. Sialic acid metabolism and sialyltransferases, natural functions and applications. Invited Mini-Review. Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol. 2012, 94, 887-905. PMID: 22526796. PMCID: PMC3534974. DOI: 10.1007/s00253-012-4040-1

Lu Q, Padler-Karavani V, Yu H, Chen X, *Wu S-L, *Varki A, Hancock WS. LC-MS analysis of polyclonal human anti-Neu5Gc xeno-autoantibodies Immmunoglobulin G subclass and partial sequence using multistep Intravenous Immunoglobulin affinity purification and multienzymatic digestion. Ana. Chem. 2012, 84, 2761-2768. PMID: 22390546. PMCID: PMC4142218. DOI: 10.1021/ac2030893

Yu H, Lau K, Li Y, Sugiarto G, *Chen X. One-pot multienzyme synthesis of Lewis x and sialyl Lewis x antigens. Invited Protocol. Curr. Protoc. Chem. Biol. 2012, 4, 233-247. PMID: 25000293. PMCID: PMC4076701. DOI: 10.1002/9780470559277.ch110277.

‡Sugiarto G, ‡Lau K, Qu J, Li Y, Lim S, Mu S, Ames JB, *Fisher AJ, *Chen X. A sialyltransferase mutant with decreased donor hydrolysis and reduced sialidase activities for directly sialylating Lewisx. ACS Chem. Biol. 2012, 7, 1232-1240. ‡Co-first authors. PMID: 22583967. PMCID: PMC3521065. DOI: 10.1021/cb300125k

‡Padler-Karavani V, ‡Song X, Yu H, Hurtado-Ziola N, Huang S, Muthana S, Chokhawala HA, Cheng J, Verhagen A, Langereis MA, Kleene R, Schachner M, de Groot RJ, Lasanajak Y, Matsuda H, Schwab R, Chen X, Smith DF, Cummings RD, Varki A. Cross-comparison of protein recognition of sialic acid diversity on two novel sialoglycan microarrays. ‡Co-first authors. J. Biol. Chem. 2012, 287, 22593-22608. PMID: 22549775. PMCID: PMC3391140. DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M112.359323

‡Khedri Z, ‡Li Y, Cao H, Qu J, Yu H, Muthana MM, *Chen X. Synthesis of selective inhibitors against V. cholerae sialidase and human cytosolic sialidase NEU2. Org. Biomol. Chem. 2012, 10, 6112-6120. PMID: 22641268. DOI: 10.1039/C2OB25335F

Canepa GE, Mesias AC, Yu H, Chen X. *Buscaglia CA. Structural features affecting trafficking, processing, and secretion of Trypanosoma cruzi mucins. J. Biol. Chem. 2012, 287, 26365-26376. PMID: 22707724. PMCID: PMC3406720. DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M112.354696


Li Y, Cao H, Yu H, Chen Y, Lau K, Qu J, Thon V, Sugiarto G, *Chen X. Identifying specific sialidase inhibitors for human cytosolic sialidase NEU2 by substrate specificity studies. Mol. Biosyst. 2011, 7, 1060­-1072. PMID: 21206954. PMCID: PMC3114945. DOI: 10.1039/C0MB00244E

Sugiarto G, Lau K, Yu H, Vuong S, Thon V, Li Y, Huang S, *Chen X. Cloning and characterization of a viral a2–3-sialyltransferase (vST3Gal-I) for the synthesis of sialyl Lewisx. Glycobiology 2011, 21, 387-396. PMID: 20978012. PMCID: PMC3033747. DOI: 10.1093/glycob/cwq172

            *Chen X. Fermenting next generation glycosylated therapeutics. ACS Chem. Biol. An invited Point of View report. 2011, 6, 14–17. PMID: 21250649. DOI: 10.1021/cb100375y

Huang S, Yu H, *Chen X. Chemoenzymatic synthesis of a2–3-sialylated carbohydrate epitopes. Sci. China Chem. 2011, 54, 117–128. PMID: 21686057. PMCID: PMC3115702. DOI: 10.1007/s11426-010-4175-9

Yu H, *Chen X. Combinatorial biosynthesis of complex carbohydrates. Chapter 10 in Carbohydrate Recognition: Biological Problems, Methods, and Applications. Binghe Wang, Geert-Jan Boons Eds. 2011, 229-255. Wiley. New Jersey, USA. http://www.wiley.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd-0470592079,descCd-tableOfContents.html ISBN: 978-0-470-59207-6

            *Cao H, Hwang J, *Chen X. Chapter 14. Carbohydrate-containing natural products in medicinal chemistry. In Opportunity, Challenge and Scope of Natural Products in Medicinal Chemistry. Vinod K. Tiwari Ed. 2011, 411–431. https://issuu.com/researchsignpost/docs/tiwari_book/318

Lau K, Yu H, Thon V, Khedri Z, Leon ME, Tran BK, *Chen X. Sequential two-step multienzyme synthesis of sialyl T antigens and derivatives. Org. Biomol. Chem. 2011, 9, 2784-2789. PMID: 21359399. PMCID: PMC3114947. DOI: 10.1039/c0ob01269f

Sela DA, Li Y, Lerno L, Wu S, Marcobal AM, German JB, Chen X, Lebrilla CB, *Mills DA. An infant-associated bacterial commensal utilizes breast milk sialyloligosaccharides. J. Biol. Chem. 2011, 286, 11909-11918. PMID: 21288901. PMCID: PMC3069393. DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M110.193359

Padler-Karavani V, Hurtado-Ziola N, Pu M, Yu H, Huang S, Muthana S, Chokhawala HA, Cao H, Secrest P, Friedmann-Morvinski D, Singer O, Ghaderi D, Verma IM, Liu Y-T, Messer K, Chen X, *Varki A, Schwab R. Human xeno-autoantibodies against a non-human sialic acid serve as novel serum biomarkers and immunotherapeutics in cancer. Cancer Res. 2011, 71, 3352-3363. PMID: 21505105. PMCID: PMC3085609. DOI: 10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-10-4102

Chen G-Y, Chen X, King S, Cavassani KA, Cheng J, Zheng X, Cao H, Yu H, Qu J, Fang D, Wu W, Bai X-F, Liu J-Q, Woodiga SA, Chen C, Sun L, Hogaboam CM, Kunkel SL, *Zheng P, *Liu Y. Amelioration of sepsis by inhibiting sialidase-mediated disruption of CD24-Siglec G interaction. Nat. Biotechnol. 2011, 29, 428-435. PMID: 21478876. PMCID: PMC4090080. DOI: 10.1038/nbt.1846

Li Y, Cao H, Dao N, Luo Z, Yu H, Chen Y, Xing Z, Baumgarth N, Cardona C, *Chen X. High-throughput neuraminidase substrate specificity study of human and avian influenza viruses. Virology 2011, 415, 12-19. PMID: 21501853. PMCID: PMC3114948. DOI: 10.1016/j.virol.2011.03.024

Yu H, Cao H, Tiwari VK, Li Y, *Chen X. Chemoenzymatic synthesis of C8-modified sialic acids and related a2-3- and a2-6-linked sialosides. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 2011, 21, 5037-5040. PMID: 21592790. PMCID: PMC3156331. DOI: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2011.04.083

Thon V, Lau K, Yu H, Tran BK, *Chen X. PmST2 – A novel Pasteurella multocida glycolipids a2–3-sialyltransferase. Glycobiology 2011, 21, 1206-1216. PMID: 21515586. PMCID: PMC3150114. DOI: 10.1093/glycob/cwr054

Pourceau G, *Chevolot Y, Goudot A, Giroux F, Meyer A, Moulés V, Lina B, Cecioni S, Vidal S, Yu H, Chen X, Ferraris O, Praly J-P, Souteyrand E, Vasseur J-J, Morvan F. Measurement of enzymatic activity and specificity of human and avian influenza neuraminidases from whole virus by glycoarray and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. ChemBioChem 2011, 12, 2071-2080. PMID: 21739555. PMCID: PMC DOI: 10.1002/cbic.201100128

Urban I, Santurio LB, Chidichimo A, Yu H, Chen X, Mucci J, Aguero F, *Buscaglia CA. Molecular diversity of the Trypanosoma cruzi TcSMUG family of mucin genes and proteins. Biochem. J. 2011, 438, 303-313. PMID: 21651499. DOI: 10.1042/BJ20110683

Ding L, Yu H, Lau K, Li Y, Muthana S, Wang J, *Chen X. Efficient chemoenzymatic synthesis of sialyl Tn antigen and derivatives. Chem. Commun. (Camb) 2011, 47, 8691-8693. PMID: 21725542. PMCID: PMC3201767. Web-themed issue on Glycochemistry & Glycobiology. DOI: 10.1039/c1cc12732b

Song X, Yu H, Chen X, Lasanajak Y, Tappert MM, Air GM, Tiwari VK, Cao H, Chokhawala HA, Zheng H, *Cummings RD, *Smith DF. A sialylated glycan microarray reveals novel interactions of modified sialic acids with proteins and viruses. J. Biol. Chem. 2011, 286, 31610-31622. PMID: 21757734. PMCID: PMC3173124. DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M111.274217

Li Y, Yu H, Chen Y, Lau K, Cai L, Cao H, Tiwari VK, Qu J, Thon V, Wang PG, *Chen X. Substrate promiscuity of N-acetylhexosamine 1-kinases. Molecules 2011, 16, 6396-6407. Special Issue “Enzyme-catalyzed reactions”. PMID: 21799473. PMCID: PMC DOI: 10.3390/molecules16086396

Sugiarto G, Lau K, Li Y, Khedri Z, Yu H, Le D-T, *Chen X. Decreasing the sialidase activity of multifunctional Pasteurella multocida a2–3-sialyltransferase 1 (PmST1) by site-directed mutagenesis. Mol. BioSyst. 2011, 7, 3021-3027. PMID: 21858283. PMCID: PMC DOI: 10.1039/C1MB05182B

Chen Y, Thon V, Li Y, Yu H, Ding L, Lau K, Qu J, Hie L, *Chen X. One-pot three-enzyme synthesis of UDP-GlcNAc derivatives. Chem. Commun. (Camb) 2011, 47, 10815-10817. PMID: 21863157. PMCID: PMC DOI: 10.1039/C1CC14034E

Bradley KC, Galloway SE, Lasanajak Y, Song X, Heimburg-Molinaro J, Yu H, Chen X, Talekar GR, Smith DF, Cummings RD, *Steinhauer DA. Analysis of influenza virus hemagglutinin receptor binding mutants with limited receptor recognition properties and conditional replication characteristics. J. Virol. 2011, 85, 12387-12398. PMID: 21917953. PMCID: PMC3209400. DOI: 10.1128/JVI.05570-11

Fei Y, Sun Y-S, Li Y, Lau K, Yu H, Chokhawala HA, Huang S, Landry JP, Chen X, *Zhu X. Fluorescent labelling agents change affinity profiles of glycan-binding proteins. Mol. BioSyst. 2011, 7, 3343-3352. PMID: 22009201. PMCID: PMC3271732. DOI: 10.1039/c1mb05332a


Cheng J, Huang S, Yu H, Li Y, Lau K, *Chen X. Trans-sialidase activity of Photobacterium damsela a2,6-sialyltransferase and its application in the synthesis of sialosides. Glycobiology 2010, 20, 260–268. PMID: 19880425. PMCID: PMC2800248. DOI: 10.1093/glycob/cwp172

            *Chen X, *Varki A. Advances in sialic acid biology and chemistry. ACS Chem. Biol. 2010, 5, 163–176. PMID: 20020717. PMCID: PMC2825284. DOI: 10.1021/cb900266r

Muiá RP, Yu H, Prescher JA, Hellman U, Chen X, Bertozzi CR, *Campetella O. Identification of glycoproteins targeted by Trypanosoma cruzi trans-sialidase, a virulence factor that disturbs lymphocyte glycosylation. Glycobiology 2010, 20, 833–842. PMID: 20354005. PMCID: PMC2900898. DOI: 10.1093/glycob/cwq037

Zhang L, Lau K, Cheng J, Yu H, Li Y, Sugiarto G, Huang S, Ding L, Thon V, Wang PG, *Chen X. Helicobacter hepaticus Hh0072 gene encodes a novel a1–3-fucosyltransferase belonging to CAZy GT11 family. Glycobiology 2010, 20, 1077–1088. PMID: 20466652. PMCID: PMC2948817. DOI: 10.1093/glycob/cwq068

Lau K, Thon V, Yu H, Ding L, Chen Y, Muthana MM, Wong D, Huang R, *Chen X. Highly efficient chemoenzymatic synthesis of b1–4-linked galactosides with promiscuous bacterial b1–4-galactosyltransferases. Chem. Commun. 2010, 46, 6066–6068. PMID: 20625591. PMCID: PMC3114949. DOI: 10.1039/c0cc01381a

Taylor RE, Gregg C, Padler-Karavani V, Ghaderi D, Yu H, Huang S, Sorensen RU, Chen X, Inostroza J, Nizet V, *Varki A. Novel mechanism for the generation of human xeno-auto-antibodies against the non-human sialic acid N-glycolylneuraminic acid. J. Exp. Med.-Brief Definitive Report. 2010, 207, 1637–1646. PMID: 20624889. PMCID: PMC2916132. DOI: 10.1084/jem.20100575

Yu H, Thon V, Lau K, Cai L, Chen Y, Mu S, Li Y, Wang PG, *Chen X. Highly efficient chemoenzymatic synthesis of b1–3-linked galactosides. Chem. Commun. 2010, 46, 7507–7509. PMID: 20830443. PMCID: PMC3114946. DOI: 10.1039/c0cc02850a


Yu H, *Chen X. Enzymatic synthesis of carbohydrate-containing biomolecules. In Wiley Encyclopedia of Chemical Biology. Chief Advisor: Tadhag P. Begley, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. NJ, Jan. 2009. pp 631-652. ISBN: 978-0-471-75477-0, http://www.wiley.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd-0471754773,descCd-description.html

Wong JH, Sahni U, Li Y, Chen X, *Gervay-Hague J. Synthesis of sulfone-based nucleotide isosteres: identification of CMP-sialic acid synthetase inhibitors. Org. Biomol. Chem. 2009, 7, 27–29. PMID: 19081938. PMCID: PMC4505548. DOI: 10.1039/b819155g

Diaz SL, Padler-Karavani V, Ghaderi D, Hurtado-Ziola N, Yu H, Chen X, Brinkman-Van der Linden ECM, *Varki A, Varki NM. Sensitive and specific detection of the non-human sialic acid N-glycolylneuraminic acid in human tissues and biotherapeutic products. PLoS ONE 2009, 4, e4241 (1–10). PMID: 19156207. PMCID: PMC2626223. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0004241

Yi W, Liu X, Li Y, Li J, Xia C, Zhou G, Zhang W, Chen X, *Wang PG. Remodeling bacterial polysaccharides by metabolic pathway engineering. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 2009, 106, 4207–4212. PMID: 19251666. PMCID: PMC2657399. http://www.pnas.org/content/106/11/4207.full.pdf+html News http://www.genengnews.com/news/bnitem.aspx?name=50093426 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0812432106

Muthana S, Yu H, Cao H, Cheng J, *Chen X. Chemoenzymatic synthesis of a new class of macrocyclic oligosaccharides. J. Org. Chem. 2009, 74, 2928–2936. Featured article. PMID: 19296596. DOI: 10.1021/jo8027856

Linman MJ, Yu H, Chen X, *Cheng Q. Fabrication and characterization of a sialoside-based carbohydrate microarray biointerface for protein binding analysis with surface Plasmon resonance imaging. ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces 2009, 1, 1755–1762. PMID: 20355792. DOI: 10.1021/am900290g

Cao H, Muthana S, Li Y, Cheng J, *Chen X. Parallel chemoenzymatic synthesis of sialosides containing a C5-diversified sialic acid. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 2009, 19, 5869–5871. PMID: 19740656. PMICD: PMC2753693. DOI: 10.1016/j.bmcl.2009.08.078

Muthana S, Cao H, *Chen X. Recent progress in chemical and chemoenzymatic synthesis of carbohydrates. Invited review. Curr. Opin. Chem. Biol. 2009, 13, 573–581. PMID: 19833544. PMCID: PMC3097241. DOI: 10.1016/j.cbpa.2009.09.013

Cao H, Li Y, Lau K,; Muthana S, Yu H, Cheng J, Chokhawala HA, Sugiarto G, Zhang L, *Chen X. Sialidase substrate specificity studies using chemoenzymatically synthesized sialosides containing C5-modified sialic acids. Org. Biomol. Chem. 2009, 7, 5137–5145. PMID: 20024109. DOI: 10.1039/B916305K

Pham T, Gregg C, Karp F, Chow R, Padler-Karavani V, Cao H, Chen X, Witztum JL, Varki NM, *Varki A. Evidence for a novel human-specific xeno-auto-antibody response against vascular endothelium. Blood 2009, 114, 5225–5235. PMID: 19828701. PMCID: PMC2792214. DOI 10.1182/blood-2009-05-220400

Yu H, Cheng J, Ding L, Khedri Z, Chen Y, Chin S, Lau K, Tiwari VK, *Chen X. Chemoenzymatic synthesis of GD3 oligosaccharides and other disialyl glycans containing natural and non-natural sialic acids. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2009, 131, 18467–18477. PMID: 19947630. PMCID: PMC2811049. DOI: 10.1021/ja907750r


Yu H, Chokhawala HA, Huang S, *Chen X. Chemoenzymatic synthesis of sialosides and their applications. In Chemical Glycobiology ACS Symposium series 990, Chen X, Halcomb R, Wang PG. Eds. 2008, Oxford University Press, Pages 96-122. ISBN-13: 978-0841274402, ISBN-10: 0841274401, DOI: 10.1021/bk-2008-0990, https://pubs.acs.org/doi/book/10.1021/bk-2008-0990

Sun M, Li Y, Chokhawala HA, Henning R, *Chen X. N-terminal 112 amino acid residues are not required for the sialyltransferase activity of Photobacterium damsela a2,6-sialyltransferase. Biotechnol. Lett. 2008, 30, 671–676. PMID: 17989925. PMCID: PMC2598773. DOI: 10.1007/s10529-007-9588-y

Linman MJ, Taylor JD, Yu H, Chen X, *Cheng Q. Surface Plasmon Resonance study of protein-carbohydrate interactions using biotinylated sialosides. Anal. Chem. 2008, 80, 4007–4013. PMID: 18461973. PMCID: PMC2586005. DOI: 10.1021/ac702566e

Li Y, Yu H, Cao H, Lau K, Muthana S, Tiwari VK, Son B, *Chen X. Pasteurella multocida sialic acid aldolase: a promising biocatalyst. Appl. Microbiol. Biotech. 2008, 79, 963–970. PMID: 18521592. PMCID: PMC2588431. DOI: 10.1007/s00253-008-1506-2

Wang Z, Gilbert M, Eguchi H, Yu H, Cheng J, Muthana S, Zhou L, Wang PG, Chen X, *Huang X. Chemoenzymatic syntheses of tumor-associated carbohydrate antigen Globo-H and stage-specific embryonic antigen 4. Adv. Synth. Catal. 2008, 350, 1717–1728. PMID: 20305750. PMCID: PMC2842016. DOI: 10.1002/adsc.200800129

Cheng J, Yu H, Lau K, Huang S, Chokhawala HA, Li Y, Tiwari VK, *Chen X. Multifunctionality of Campylobacter jejuni sialyltransferase CstII: Characterization of GD3/GT3 oligosaccharide synthase, GD3 oligosaccharide sialidase, and trans-sialidase activities. Glycobiology 2008, 18, 686–697. PMID: 18509108. PMCID: PMC2588429. DOI: 10.1093/glycob/cwn047

Chokhawala HA, Huang S, Lau K, Yu H, Cheng J, Thon V, Hurtado-Ziola N, Guerrero JA, Varki A, *Chen X. Combinatorial chemoenzymatic synthesis and high-throughput screening of sialosides. ACS Chem. Biol. 2008, 3, 567–576. PMID: 18729452. PMCID: PMC2588434. DOI: 10.1021/cb800127n

Padler-Karavani V, Yu H, Cao H, Chokhawala HA, Karp F, Chen X, Varki N, *Varki A. Diversity in specificity, abundance and composition of anti-Neu5Gc antibodies in normal humans: Potential implications for disease. Glycobiology 2008, 18, 818–830. PMID: 18669916. PMCID: PMC2586336. DOI: 10.1093/glycob/cwn072

Cao H, Huang S, Cheng J, Li Y, Muthana S, Son B, *Chen X. Chemical preparation of sialyl Lewis x using an enzymatically synthesized sialoside building block. Carbohydr. Res. 2008, 343, 2863–2869. PMID: 18639240. PMCID: PMC2783551. DOI: 10.1016/j.carres.2008.06.020

*Byres E, *Paton AW, Paton JC, Smith DF, Lofling JC, Wilce MCJ. Chong DC, Talbot UM, Yu H, Huang S, Chen X, Varki NM, Varki A, Rossjohn J, Beddoe T. Incorporation of a non-human glycan mediates human susceptibility to a bacterial toxin. Nature 2008, 456, 648–652. PMID: 18971931. PMCID: PMC2723748. DOI: 10.1038/nature07428


Chokhawala HA, *Chen X. Chemical aspects (scope and limitations) A: Enzymatic approaches to O-glycoside introduction: Glycosyltransferases. In Comprehensive Glycoscience, from Chemistry to Systems Biology (J. P. Kamerling, Ed.) Subject Editors: Geert-Jan Boons, YC Lee, Akemi Suzuki, Naoyuki Taniguchi, and Alphons G. J. Voragen. Elsevier, Oxford, UK, 2007, 1, 415–451. ISBN-13: 978-0444527462, ISBN-10: 044452746X

Chokhawala H, Yu H, *Chen X. High-throughput substrate specificity studies of sialidases using chemoenzymatically synthesized sialoside libraries. ChemBioChem 2007, 8, 194–201. PMID: 17195254. PMCID: PMC2610223. DOI: 10.1002/cbic.200600410

Huang S, Yu H, *Chen X. Disaccharides as sialic acid aldolase substrates: synthesis of disaccharides containing a sialic acid at the reducing end. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2007, 5, 2249–2253. PMID: 17309109. DOI: 10.1002/anie.200604799

Yu H, *Chen X. Carbohydrate post-glycosylational modifications. Org. Biomol. Chem. (Emerging Area Article) Featured as cover picture, 2007, 5, 865–872. PMID: 17340000. PMICD: PMC2769254. DOI: 10.1039/b700034k

Ni L, Chokhawala HA, Cao H, Henning R, Ng L, Huang S, Yu H, *Chen X, *Fisher AJ. Crystal structures of a Pasteurella multocida sialyltransferase complexes with acceptor and donor analogs reveal substrate binding sites and catalytic mechanism. Biochemistry 2007, 46, 6288–6298. PMID: 17487984. DOI: 10.1021/bi700346w

Yu H, Chokhawala HA, Varki A, *Chen X. Efficient chemoenzymatic synthesis of biotinylated human serum albumin-sialoglycoside conjugates containing O-acetylated sialic acids. Org. Biomol. Chem. 2007, 5, 2458–2463. PMID: 17637967. PMCID: PMC2769491. DOI: 10.1039/b706507h

Li Y, Sun M, Huang S, Yu H, Chokhawala HA, Thon V, *Chen X. The Hd0053 gene of Haemophilus ducreyi encodes an a2,3-sialyltransferase. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 2007, 361, 555–560. PMID: 17662691. PMCID: PMC2084346. DOI: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2007.07.063

Lewis AL, Cao H, Patel SK. Diaz S, Ryan W, Carlin AF, Thon V, Lewis WG, Varki A, Chen X, Nizet V. NeuA sialic acid O-acetylesterase activity modulates O-acetylation of capsular polysaccharides in Group B Streptococcus. J. Biol. Chem. 2007, 282, 27562–27571. PMID: 17646166. PMCID: PMC2588433. DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M700340200

Chokhawala HA. Cao H. Yu H. *Chen X. Enzymatic synthesis of fluorinated mechanistic probes for sialidases and sialyltransferases. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2007, 129, 10630–10631. PMID: 17696347. DOI: 10.1021/ja072687u

Muthana S, Yu H, Huang S, *Chen X. Chemoenzymatic synthesis of size-defined polysaccharides by sialyltransferase-catalyzed block transfer of oligosaccharides. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2007, 129, 11918–11919. PMID: 17845050. DOI: 10.1021/ja075736b


Yu H, Ryan W, Yu H, *Chen X. Characterization of a bifunctional cytidine 5’-monophosphate N-acetylneuraminic acid synthetase cloned from Streptococcus agalactiae. Biotechnol. Lett. 2006, 28, 107–113. PMID: 16369694. DOI: 10.1007/s10529-005-4955-z

Ni L, Sun M, Yu H, Chokhawala H, *Chen X, *Fisher AJ. Cytidine 5’-monophosphate (CMP)-induced structural changes in a multifunctional sialyltransferase from Pasteurella multocida. Biochemistry, 2006, 45, 2139–2148. PMID: 16475803. DOI: 10.1021/bi0524013

Yu H, Huang S, Chokhawala H, Sun M, Zheng H, *Chen X. Highly efficient chemoenzymatic synthesis of naturally occurring and non-natural a-2,6-linked sialosides: a P. damsela a-2,6-sialyltransferase with extremely flexible donor substrate specificity. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2006, 45, 3938–3944. PMID: 16721893. PMCID: PMC2728590. DOI: 10.1002/anie.200600572

Yu H, *Chen X. Aldolase catalyzed synthesis of b-D-Gal-(1®9)-D-KDN: A novel acceptor for sialyltransferases. Org. Lett. 2006, 8, 2393–2396. PMID: 16706534. DOI: 10.1021/ol060736m

Yu H, Chokhawala H, Huang S, *Chen X. One-pot three-enzyme chemoenzymatic approach to the synthesis of sialosides containing natural and non-natural functionalities. Nat. Protoc. 2006, 1, 2485–2492. PMID: 17406495. PMCID: PMC2586341. DOI: 10.1038/nprot.2006.401


Saribas AS, Mobasseri A, Pristatsky P, Chen X, Barthelson R, Hakes D, Wang J. Production of N-sulfated polysaccharides using yeast expressed N-deacetylase/N-sulfotransferase-1 (NDST-1). Glycobiology, 2004, 14, 1217–1228. PMID: 15253930. DOI: 10.1093/glycob/cwh129

Yu H, Yu H, Karpel R, *Chen X. Chemoenzymatic synthesis of CMP-sialic acid derivatives by a one-pot two-enzyme system: comparison of substrate flexibility of three microbial CMP-sialic acid synthetase. Bioorg. Med. Chem. 2004, 12, 6427–6435. PMID: 15556760. DOI:10.1016/j.bmc.2004.09.030


Yu H, Chokhawala H, Karpel R, Yu H, Wu B, Zhang J, Zhang Y, Jia Q, *Chen X. A multifunctional Pasteurella multocida sialyltransferase: a powerful tool for the synthesis of sialoside libraries. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2005, 127, 17618–17619. PMID: 16351087. DOI: 10.1021/ja0561690